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Maven profiles

Maven profiles are a way to customize build configurations based on different environments or requirements. They allow you to define sets of build configurations, plugins, and dependencies that can be activated or deactivated depending on specific conditions. Profiles are helpful when you need to build your project differently for various scenarios like development, testing, production, or specific platforms.

Here's how you can define and use Maven profiles:

1. Define Profiles in Your POM.xml:

In your project's pom.xml file, you can define profiles within the <profiles> element. Each profile can have its unique configuration. Here's an example of how to define a profile:

<profiles>

    <profile>

        <id>development</id>

        <!-- Define configuration specific to development -->

        <properties>

            <environment>dev</environment>

        </properties>

    </profile>

    <profile>

        <id>production</id>

        <!-- Define configuration specific to production -->

        <properties>

            <environment>prod</environment>

        </properties>

    </profile>

</profiles>

2. Activate Profiles:

Profiles can be activated based on different criteria:

Explicit Activation: You can manually activate a profile using the -P command-line option followed by the profile ID. For example, to activate the "development" profile, you can use mvn clean install -Pdevelopment.

Activation by Environment: Profiles can be activated based on the project's environment, such as the operating system or Java version.

Activation by Property: You can activate profiles based on the presence or absence of specific properties defined in the POM or via the command line.


3. Use Profiles for Configuration:

Once a profile is activated, you can use it to customize various aspects of your build, such as dependencies, plugin configurations, or resource directories. For example, you can specify different database connections, API endpoints, or logging levels for different profiles.


4. Profile Inheritance:

Profiles can also be inherited. You can define common configurations in a parent POM and have child POMs inherit and extend those profiles as needed.


Here's how you might use a profile to customize a database connection URL:

<profiles>

    <profile>

        <id>development</id>

        <properties>

            <db.url>jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/dev_db</db.url>

        </properties>

    </profile>

    <profile>

        <id>production</id>

        <properties>

            <db.url>jdbc:mysql://prod-server:3306/prod_db</db.url>

        </properties>

    </profile>

</profiles>

By using Maven profiles, you can streamline your build process and ensure that your project is built and configured correctly for different environments or use cases.

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